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Excavations have continued at the site under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania Museum with an international team. Shakespeare's histories which define the theatrical genre History theatrical genre Histories may also refer to:. The first one led Scythians, under whom, according to Strabo, they overran Asia, and advanced as far as Egypt.
This was perhaps the incursion mentioned by Herodotus, who tells us that they held Asia for 28 years, and were ultimately driven out by Cyaxares, BC. According to Herodotus, however, the king, who led the expedition of which he gives an account, was Madyas; and Madyas is mentioned by Strabo i. An incursion of the Scythians to the borders of Egypt in very early times is recorded by Justin, but in an obscure and unsatisfactory way. Another king of the Scythians, probably a descendant of the above. He was a son of Saulius, the brother and slayer of Anacharsis.
When Darius I of Persia invaded Scythia, about BC, and the Scythians retreated before him, he sent a message to Idanthyrsus, calling upon him either to fight or submit. He, however did reply, "But if all you want is to come to fight, we have the graves of our fathers. Come on, find these and try to destroy them: you shall know then whether we will fight you.
The History of Herodotus, Volume 2 by Herodotus
In his Histories, Herodotus writes the following about the dialogue between the Persian king and Idanthyrsus publication, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group ;. Thou strange man, why dost thou keep on flying before me, when there are two things thou mightest do easily? If thou deemest thyself able to resist my arms, cease thy wanderings and come, let us engage in battle. Or if thou art conscious that my strength is greater than thine - even so thou shouldest cease to run away - thou hast but to bring thy lord Earth and water, and to come at once to a conference.
I never fear men or fly from them. I have not done so in times past, nor do I now fly from thee. There is nothing new or strange in what I do; I only follow my common mode of life in peaceful years. Now I will tell thee why I do not at once join battle with thee.
We Scythians have neither towns nor cultivated lands, which might induce us, through fear of their being taken or ravaged, to be in a hurry to fight with you. If, however, you must needs to come to blows with us speedily, look, you now there are our fathers' tombs' - seek them out, and attempt to meddle with them. Till ye do this, be sure we shall not join battle, unless it pleases us. This is my answer to the challenge to fight. As for lords, I acknowledge only Jove, my ancestor, and Hestia, the Scythian queen.
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Last of all, in return for thy calling thyself my lord, I say to thee, "Go weep". This article presents a list of people whom Herodotus c. Herodotus presented his theme as "recording the achievements of both our own Greek and other peoples; and more particularly, to show how they came into conflict". Structurally, The Histories is sub-divided into nine books, each of which is sometimes named after one of the nine Muses. The work contains numerous digressions but the theme is constant.
Although Herodotus' references range from the Trojan War of the 2nd millennium BC to the Peloponnesian War in his own lifetime, the essential scope of the entire work is a record of events from the reign of Cyrus the Great c. Book One ends with the death of Cyrus. Some of the people named by Herodotus are legendary, or at least semi-legendary. Mandrocles dedicated a painting, depicting the bridging of the straits, to goddess Hera in the Heraion of Samos, commemorating his achievement.
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In Attica, it was approximately equal to For example, the Spartan medimnos was approximately equal to A medimnos could be divided into several smaller units: the tritaios one third , the hekteus one sixth , the hemiektos one twelfth , the choinix one forty-eighth and the kotyle 0. Herodotus describes them III. An extract from his work III. They are said to have the following customs. If any of their compatriots -- a man or a woman -- is ill, his closest male friends assuming that it is a man who is ill kill him, on the grounds that if he wasted away in illness his flesh would become spoiled.
He denies that he is ill, but they take no notice, kill him, and have a feast. Exactly the same procedure is followed by a woman's closest female friends when it is a woman who is ill. They sacrifice and eat anyone who reaches old age, but it is unusual for anyone to do so, because they kill everyone who falls ill before reaching old age.
Newbold thought that they were likely to be the Batta, a tribe of Sumatra, who he said continued to practice cannibalism. Others have recorded that the Batta of the central Sumatran highlands not only were cannibals, but they also formerly ate their elders. Wheeler cited scholars who connected the name "Padaei" variously with a town in Little Tibet Ladakh , a river in Kutch and the Ganges. He suggested that the name might be a general name or term for the nomadic inhabitants of north-western India.
William Smith, citing Mannert, suggested that they might be Tatars, and not an Indian tribe. Latham pointed to the similarity of the name "Padaei" with that of the Batta and the Veddah, and concluded that all that could be said as to the Padaei's identity was that they were a "rude tribe in contact with an Indian population. Wheeler took the view that whether they were really cannibals "may be doubted. The sagaris is an ancient Iranian shafted weapon used by the horse-riding ancient North-Iranian Saka and Scythian peoples of the great Eurasian steppe.
According to Aristarchus of Samothrace, the legendary Amazons used the sagaris, as well. The sagaris was a kind of battle-axe, or sometimes war hammer. Examples have been collected from Eurasian steppe archeological excavations, and are depicted on the Achaemenid cylinders and ancient Greek pottery and other surviving iconographic material.
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It is a long-shafted weapon with a metal head, with an either sharp axe-like or blunt hammer-like edge on one side and a sharp straight or curving 'ice-pick'-like point on the other. Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans. Caius Caesar Caligula Caligula. Suetonius Tranquillus.
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Complete Works of Arrian Delphi Classics. Complete Works of Strabo Delphi Classics. Strabo of Amaseia. Romulus Serapis Classics. Parallel Lives - Vol. A Smaller history of Greece From the earliest times to the Roman conquest. William Sir Smith.
Works of Procopius. Treatises on Friendship and Old Age.
Histoires - Tome VI : Livre VI : Erato
Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh. The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Surtonius Tranquillus. History Of The Peloponnesian War. The Geography of Strabo. Marcus Tullius Cicero. On Old Age. Works of Xenophon. History of Rome.